Tag Archives: Dave Murray

This Week In Photos: September 6

1979

The hydrant stands alone! The clearing adjacent to the school where the new access road will run.

Haus Heidi, one of the honourable mentions in the Garden Contest.

Ester Wunderly models the latest fashions…

… while Dave Murray, sawing through a ski, is helped by Casey Niewerth at the Skyline Sports’ new 6,000 sq. ft store opening in Kerrisdale, Vancouver.

Joanne stands behind the counter of the new Spud Valley Sporting Goods Store.

1980

Town Centre site stands virtually deserted due to work stoppage which began Thursday, August 28.

As in many cases, you’ve got to start at the bottom to get to the top. In this picture we have the crew putting the cable on the Garibaldi Lifts’ chairlift that rises from the Town Centre. Also shown is the pit that the two-mountain daylodge will rise from. It won’t be completed this year but the substructure will and portable trailers will be used on site to sell lift tickets to Whistler and Blackcomb.

A jumper unfolds their flip into Lost Lake.

Dance competitors took to the floor for the University of Whistler dance contest. The winners were Chris Speedie and June Everett.

Linda Satre accepts another donation to the Terry Fox fund from a patron outside the Husky Station while Ruth Howells looks on.

1982

It was a tough weekend of close plays, but when all the dust settled in this weekend’s slow pitch tourney Tapley’s were the winners.

He flies through the air with the greatest of ease… Oh the joys of being airborne… especially when you’ve just hurtled down the aerial ramp at Lost Lake. But oh, the chill of it all once you hit that water. Eleven competitors took part in this year’s aerial acrobatic competition.

Cris Simpson and Duncan Maxwell sharpen their pencils for the first lesson of the term at Myrtle Philip Elementary School.

Busy little bees and industrious beavers welcome students to Miss Christopher’s classroom.

It was no easy task, but for the second year in a row Stoney’s team walked away with first-place honours in the Great Waters Race. (L to R) Dave Murray, Jinny Ladner, Ken Hardy, Lisa Nicholson and Brian Allen.

Bears have been a problem for businesses located in Whistler’s Industrial Park. Provincial wildlife traps are catching more than the normal number of ornery critters.

1983

Caller Ken Crisp led members of the Swinging Singles Square Dance Club in Village Square Saturday and Sunday. Garters were prominently on view as women twirled in their colourful square dancing dresses. The club has more than 300 members and is based in the Burnaby Lake Pavilion.

Relief map of proposed Powder Mountain ski area. Number areas are townsites, white lines are ski runs, and dark lines are ski lifts. Photo was taken at the Vancouver office of Powder Mountain Resort Ltd., where the relief map is stored.

Some kids got right back into the swing as Myrtle Philip School re-opened Tuesday, September 6 but Michael Hoffmann seems to be thinking of other things as Yann Omnes looks on. Sandy Pauliuk-Epplett, meanwhile, starts the rest of the Grade 2 and 3 class off on the right foot by explaining first day back-to-school rules and suggesting school supplies. Motorists, take extra caution now as the little ones head back to school.

Ross Smith, General Manager, Stoney’s, White Gold.

1984

The Fraser Valley Round and Square Dance Association entertained village visitors all weekend long. The dancers even convinced spectators in Village Square to take part in their traditional dance routines. Hundreds of visitors flocked to Whistler for the Labour Day weekend and the village came in with an occupancy rate of 62 per cent in August.

The Conference Centre is expected to be finished by May 1985 and will be one of only two facilities built for conferences in BC.

Angus Maxwell, 10 years old, was the lucky winner of a Red Baron BMX bicycle, presented here by Barb Stewart of the Pharmasave. The drugstore received dozens of entries for the contest.

Tuesday was the first day of classes for local students. Myrtle Philip School opened its doors to 111 students and the Grade 2 and 3 class, taught by Sandy Pauliuk-Epplett, saw classes end at 11:30 am rather than 3 pm.

Vandals hit the former Mountain House Cabaret Friday night, kicking apart a fence and tearing down a wooden sign. Although about $100 worth of damage was done, the vandals apparently saved the new owner the task of removing the Mountain House sign.

Paul and Jane Burrows returned to Whistler last Tuesday after spending more than a year travelling around the globe. The couple’s dog Simba hardly even noticed that the trekkers, who travelled by horse, train, bus, helicopter and even car to South Africa, France, New Zealand and Tahiti (to name but a few stops) were gone. Late summer also saw the return of Al and Nancy Raine after spending the last two years in Crans Montana, Switzerland.

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This Week In Photos: August 23

1978

Someone forgot to get a building permit and arrived to find this notice on their site.

A young boy takes a leap during cross country training at the Myrtle Philip School gym.

This car may be in need of more than just a tow.

Offering Brunch & Lunch from 11 am – but when does it end?

1979

The Whistler Tennis Club Tournament on Saturday at the Taylor courts in Creekside.

Bob Priest stands proudly in front of his new drugstore in Pemberton.

What is it? Not a squatter’s cabin but merely a plastic structure for the fire department to practice its smoke rescue maneuvers.

Impromptu sidewalk sale – Leigh Finck sells off his goods after finding himself out on the street (literally) on Saturday.

Signs appearing on the tree by the Town Centre – note the Danger Construction Zone!

The first meeting of the Whistler Council in the new council chamber trailer. Acting Mayor Horsey presides.

1980

Grant Cooper cuts through bush on shores of Lost Lake. Miles of X-country trails are being cut as well as a dock and beach for the south end of Lost Lake.

In Pemberton there’s parking for all types of vehicles.

Town Centre’s Resort Centre rises faster as summer begins to wind down.

Congregating at the Molson Whistler Fun Fitness Swim after party to check the scores.

1981

These pyjama people must have gotten their beauty sleep the night before to enjoy Club 10’s pyjama party.

Brenda Thompson talks to customers at the Whistler PNE booth in the BC Building.

Benny Hu and Peggy Lee of Vancouver and Peter Chan of Calgary eat up the flavour of soft ice cream at Hilda’s Delicatessen.

It was a busy first day for Carlbergs! Lisa Knight and her brother Greg Carlberg were pleasantly surprised by the large number of customers who visited them on their opening day August 22.

A quick coat of paint – and a quick smile – help freshen up the outside of the old Vallee Blanche. Simone Aaron and Pascal Tipine get ready to open their new restaurant – Madame’s.

A member of a party of British kayakers paddles through white water on the Cheakamus River.

1982

Craig McKenzie of the Whistler Health Planning Society inspects the trailer brought into position adjacent to the Sports & Convention Centre for Whistler’s new medical clinic.

A victorious flight from the north face of Big Old Softie brought a rush of excitement to (L to R) Dave O’Keefe, Colin Dennis, Sandy Boyd, Terry Dyke, Howie Byard and Doug Banner.

A welder fixes a part to one of the towers that will be used on Lift No. 6 at Blackcomb.

Pockets the Clown teaches a group of children about product safety through puppets and poems during the Blinkley & Doinkle Puppet Show held in Village Square Tuesday.

1983

Bikers show their Harleys in front of the Carleton Lodge…

while Village Square hosts a show of Jaguars.

In between watching the Binkley and Doinkle Puppet Show in Whistler Village Thursday afternoon, these kids are participating in a jam session led by Karen Overgaard.

Arnold Palmer shows his fine follow through after sending a shot nearly 200 yards with a 9 iron. Palmer stresses proper rhythm rather than pure power to achieve those awesome shots. What a way to open a golf course!

Delta Mountain Inn’s new Director of Sales is 32-year-old Charles Ku. Hired for the position August 15, Ku was previously with the Century Plaza Hotel in Vancouver. He has been in the hotel business for 12 years and started at the venerable Empress Hotel in Victoria as a dishwasher. Ku, who has been skiing at Whistler for six years, says he almost feels like one of the locals. He replaces Robin Thompson as Director of Sales.

The Twigs patio at the Delta Mountain Inn looks busy on a sunny summer afternoon.

1984

This Baxter condotel unit may seem out of place on West Georgia Street in Vancouver, but marketing consultant Mel Grebinsky says it’s one of the “highest profile” corners in the city. The Baxter Group is marketing 165 of the $50,000 units inside the buildings, which will be built near the Whistler gondola and, according to Grebinsky, everyone from office clerks to lawyers is interested. Admission to the downtown show unit is by donation to the Variety Club.

Now that’s breaking ground! Whistler Mountain’s new addition to its Squarehouse got underway last Wednesday with (L to R) Roger McCarthy, project manager; Lorne Borgal, WMSC president; and Dave Murray, director of skiing. The initial phase of the project, slated for a December completion, includes a 350-seat dining area and 186 sq. m kitchen designed to produce baked goods, soups and a variety of other items. Additional improvements scheduled for the 1985/86 ski season include a 250-seat mezzanine and the balance of a full production kitchen.

Municipal Clerk Kris Shoup Robinson packs it in Friday for the big move to bigger and better facilities at the new municipal hall in Whistler Village. Staff have been waiting in anticipation for the move.

Furniture and files are moved into the new municipal hall (and old Keg building) on Blackcomb Way, next to the Public Services Building.

Seven athletes competed over the weekend for the Mr. Mountain title, which was eventually won by defending champ Ken Hardy. Events included golfing, kayaking, cycling, weightlifting and a series of times calisthenics.

About 120 travel agents flocked to Whistler Saturday for a fun-day event appropriately titled Battle of the Travel Stars. These office athletes completed obstacle courses by foot and by canoe, set new records in a swimming dress-up event at Delta Mountain Inn’s pool and ended the day with a rousing banquet at the hotel. The tug-of-war had the added excitement of a pool of Mazola between the two teams.

A healthy group of 30 young skiers is taking part in a month-long Whistler Mountain Ski Club ski camp. Skiing sessions are held on the Whistler Mountain glaciers using the club’s rope tow, but the skiers also spent a week doing dryland training before starting the technically-oriented camp directed by coach Jacques Morel.

This Week In Photos: June 28

1978

Power lines dip treacherously after Sunday’s strong winds knocked large pieces of deadwood onto the line.

The district track meet in Squamish got lucky with its weather.

Someone was practicing their glass breaking at the liquor store last week. RCMP are investigating.

A new BBQ ready to be installed at Alta Lake Wayside Park.

Sarah, Wendy and Sid try to decide what to do with that nosy photographer during a party Friday.

1980

Arnold Palmer chats with the crowd towards the close of the official ceremony at the Whistler Golf Course.

A chopper spins and dips above Whistler benchlands as the lowest lift of the three chair north face lift system is installed from top down.

Casey Simpson, Eric Bredt, Devin Turner, Rachel Roberts, Corinne Valleau & Stephanie Simpson head out for their sprint with Terry Alway & Alex Marshall officiating.

Phase II Parcel 16 takes shape with Whistler Chairlift N-14 rising through the trees on the left.

Heavy Duty flat deck pulls out the last of two trailers that served as council chambers before Town Centre road construction forced the move.

1981

With a landscaped area, seed for lawn and new curbing in, Sunshine Place takes on a new look. Paving will add a finishing touch and should be completed by the end of July.

Myrtle Philip looks on as Greg Beauregard receives the first ever Myrtle Philip Award. Mother Pat smiles proudly.

Not to be outdone by the Myrtle Philip staff who were in last week’s paper, the staff from Signal Hill Elementary School in Pemberton pose for The Question.

Contestants for the Miss Pemberton Contest look on as BC Minister of Highways, Alex Fraser, explains the provincial grant for Pemberton Airport.

Madeline Domries and her pal Curly Jones wait with great expectations for their fourth prize at Dog Days in the Village Square.

Dressed up at the Alta Lake Community Club Roaring Twenties Pot Luck Dinner, left to right: Max Maxwell, Kelly Maxwell, Diane Smith and Ken Domries.

Susan McCance will run Whistler’s new daycare program.

1982

A chopper heads out with a bucket of water to help squelch the recent forest fire in Cheakamus.

Jan Naylor displays some of the strawberries now ready for picking at the Naylor Berry Farm 3 km north of Pemberton.

Stubborn as a mule! In spite of the efforts of the ‘D’Arcy Prospectors’ this donkey refused to cross the BCR tracks during the Pemberton Parade in celebration of Canada week.

New stop signs often get ignored so the municipality placed reminders in front of this sign on the intersection of Rainbow, Matterhorn and Camino Drive.

Not even the rain stopped these kids from a practice paddle on Alta Lake for the Whistler Country Guides Kids Races. Bad weather postponed the races to Saturday, July 3 at 9:30 at Wayside Park.

1983

Long-time Whistler residents Paul Mathews and Margot Sutcliffe shared a smile on their wedding day Saturday, June 25 at Whistler. Over 150 guests joined the celebration at the Sundial Restaurant.

This house has found its new home on the streets of Whistler.

Round and round and round they danced in celebration of summer. Whistler’s first Midsummer Fest, June 25-26, caught the imagination of hundreds, whether they were Scandinavian or not.

Toni Sailer, six-time Olympic gold medalist, comes to Whistler from Austria every year to run the ski camp.

Dave Murray and Floyd Wilkie have a pre-session consultation at the base of the t-bar.

The Tapley’s Pub softball team poses for a group photo.

Ken Harrop of Singapore Airlines showed his staff and took to the air Saturday during the obstacle race – part one of the three-part Battle of the Travel Stars. Thirty-seven travel agents took part in the two-day fun-filled FAM tour of Whistler.

1984

Scandinavian dancers and musicians filled the village over the weekend for traditional Midsummer festivities. Saturday and Sunday afternoon dancers in garb of the old country whirled about Village Square to folk tunes.

Pemberton Mayor Shirley Henry officially opened the Pemberton Museum Saturday with help from West Vancouver-Howe Sound MLA John Reynolds and his wife Yvonne. Museum curator Margaret Fougberg says most of the collection, which features artifacts dating from the 1860s until the 1950s, was donated by townspeople. The museum building itself has a long history. It was built around 1895 and has been moved twice. It’s permanent location is on Prospect Street in Pemberton.

Whistler Mountains’ miniature golf course at the gondola opened last week and immediately attracted a steady following. The 18-hole course costs $2 a round for adults, $1 for children and is open all day.

Grade seven students went on a computer tour Friday, visiting municipal computers, Twin Peaks Property Management computers and the phototypesetting systems used by the Whistler Question. Pauline Wiebe, Question typesetter, shows students how the machine works.

This Week In Photos: May 31

1980

Here today, gone tomorrow – the continuing battle of graffiti artists on the old firehall at Mons was finally ended Tuesday, May 27 when municipal crews tore the building down.

Hydro uses a giant trailer and steering unit to move a new transformer into Rainbow substation at Mons.

Package 16 is quick to start work. The first of the Phase II parcels to start work in the Town Centre this year. Jim Cook’s pumper truck helps fill forms with cement from Cardinal Concrete.

The uphill, sunny east side of the new Blackcomb daylodge waits for glass and interior work to be done.

A cabin is ignited, ready to shoot a dramatic scene for Gold Key Entertainment’s movie “Up River”.

1981

Jeff Heinzman and Michael Smith of the High Country Band bringing an easy-to-listen country touch to the Mountain House.

Liam McCarthy takes tractor lessons from Ed Mitchell at the Coast Mountain Outdoor School.

Stanley Smith pins Rotary President’s Pin on Bob Brown.

T.J.L. Contracting lay sewer force main along Rainbow Drive.

One of the many houses in Garibaldi that are being moved as residents sell out before the June 10 deadline.

1983

Dave Murray studies the Southern Cross timing computer during the Canada West Ski Area Association’s trade show in the Whistler Village Inn.

Fire Chief Lindsay Wilson kills two birds with one hose. While checking out the pressure on one of the municipal fire engines he provides 800 gal./min. worth of relief for a parched Alpha Lake Park.

“Stop that” squealed friends of Cindy Thomson, but they didn’t really mean it as temperatures soared to 36C Sunday. Lost Lake proved to be a haven for those seeking relief from the unseasonable heat wave.

From small beginnings great things sometimes grow. Toiling under 30plus temperatures, Christopher Forrest and Jody Edgon began excavations by the shores of Lost Lake on Monday. Unlike their elder counterparts, small contractors can dispense with building permits and zoning bylaws and focus on the job at hand.

1984

Sunday was one of the first real days of spring this year and the Myrtle Philip School diamond was the scene for a local fastball game between Pemberton Legion and the Whistler squad. Whistler lost 13-5 to the Pemberton team.

A true adventurer, Briton Paul Claxton passed through Whistler last Wednesday on the first leg of a solo cycling expedition to Alaska by gravel road. Clayton, 21, is an Oxford physics graduate on leave from his research job and says his 3,000 mile trip, leading to the brink of the Arctic Ocean, is the first of its kind. The determined cyclist is ready for anything. Last Tuesday he wheeled his custom built, $1,400 10-speed into the Daisy Lake campground where he spent the night under a picnic table. His only real worries, however, are bears and the man-eating Canadian mosquito.

Kelly Norton doesn’t like holding the tail of an 18 1/2″ Rainbow Trout that her dad, David, caught early Sunday morning. Kelly’s brother Michael doesn’t seem to mind though. Mr. Norton is wondering, however, if there’s any more fish like the one he caught still in Alta Lake. He says it’s the largest he’s seen in years.

Movers managed to transport the 5,300 lb. safe into the new credit union office in Village Square Monday after they also shifted the 4,500 lb. night deposit vault. North Shore Community Credit Union is all set for its Saturday opening.

Singer Paul Ciechanowski, hired by the Whistler Resort Association for summer village entertainment, opened the season Saturday in Village Square.

This Week In Photos: April 12

The photos we share through This Week In Photos are only a very small part of the Whistler Question Collection.  The full collection can be viewed online here.  If you see a photo you love, photos from our collections can be purchased, either online or by contacting our Collections Manager John Alexander, and certain sizes can even be printed for you at the museum!

1980

A bird’s eye view of Creekside.

And a fly-over view of the Whistler Village, or what there is of it so far.

Somebody was spending a lot of time in a helicopter this week – here they flew over Cheakamus Lake amid the mountains of Garibaldi Provincial Park.

BC Tel and BCR towers on the west bluff of the Black Tusk.

WORM’S EYE VIEW of the new drugstore and office building in the town centre. This building should be one of the first to be finished this summer.

Question Editor’s Assistant BJ (Brad) Cooper.

1981

Nancy Greene-Raine takes to the polls April 11 with help from Pat McMillan.

Joe Cannon, with his personality-plus, gave the Question this comment on life during his April 10 show at the Brass Rail. His flexible voice worked its way masterfully around tunes from Bob Dylan to Gordon Lightfoot to Elvis the Pelvis. Cannon has quite a remarkable way with audiences, not to mention photographers.

The Municipal Hall on a snowy, windy day.

Mrs Turner’s class thanks Mr Strathers after their field trip to the drugstore.

A class also took a trip to visit the local RCMP detachment.

1982

Michell Brown and Doug Smith hold up the Price Waterhouse Trophy, which they won in junior skiing competition at Blackcomb Mountain on Sunday.

Some Whistler residents could do with a few lessons in tidiness and cooperation. This scene at the Mons garbage compactor tells a story.

The latest development in the Cheakamus Canyon project is the diversion which carries vehicles through the rock cut rather than around one of the most dangerous corners on Highway 99.

The Mountainside Inn has come a long way from the pouring of its foundations,

A friendly game of charades is played out in someone’s living room.

1983

A gift of two mountains was presented to Washington Governor John Spellman (right) by Mayor Mark Angus (second from right) during his tour of Whistler last week. Washington hopes to develop its Early Winters Resort. Governor Spellman was accompanied by Senator Alan Bluechel (left), Mrs Jeanne Erlichmann Bluechel and Mrs Irene Spellman.

Mountain Square buildings in various stages of construction. Some hotels are missing, giving a clear view through to Sundial Crescent.

First place winners in the Mouton Cadet Spring Festival held April 9, 10, 11 on Whistler Mountain. (l to r) Dave Murray, Nancy Smith, Jim Parsons, Toby Shale. Back row Xavier deEizaguirre of Mountain Rothschild and Werner Schonberger, president of Featherstone & Co.

An innovative storage system for the Mouton Cadet atop the mountain.

Celebrating Whistler’s World Cup Downhill Races

Historically, in the month of March, Whistler would be hosting a World Cup Downhill event.  Up to 500 weasel workers would be working 12-hour days preparing the racecourse, installing safety nets and removing and moving snow throughout the course.  These volunteers were as important to the success of the event as the downhill racers themselves.

Thousands of ski-race fans would descend on Whistler, filling up hotels and making reservations a necessity to eat at many of the world-class restaurants in Whistler Village.  Pubs and bars would be full to capacity and the village would be enshrouded in a party-like atmosphere for close to two weeks.

Whistler attempted to host its first World Cup race on March 7, 1979.  Due to weather, the race was cancelled.  Three years later, in 1982, Whistler successfully hosted the World Cup Downhill event.  This race took place on a course on the north side of Whistler and its finish was in the newly completed Whistler Village.

Peter Müller of Switzerland finished in first place and two Crazy Canucks, Steve Podborski and Dave Irwin, finished second and third, respectively.  The 1982 race was capped off with a huge celebration because Podborski tied Müller for the overall Downhill World Cup title.

Thousands upon thousands of spectators jam Whistler Village Square for the World Cup presentations.  Whistler Question Collection, 1982.

This would be the only race held on this course.  Racers complained the north side course was too flat and Müller even joked that he should bring his cross-country skis to the next one.  The downhill course was moved back to the south-side course and every other World Cup Downhill race held in Whistler was held on this course.  The racecourse was later renamed after Crazy Canuck Dave Murray, who succumbed to cancer in 1990.

Whistler hosted the World Cup Downhill event again in 1984 and two years later in 1986.  In 1989, Rob Boyd became the first Canadian to win a World Cup race on home soil.  If you ask many Whistlerites here at the time, they can tell you where they were when Boyd crossed the finish line.

Local boy Rob Boyd atop the podium, 25 February 1989. Photo: Greg Griffith/WMAS.

Prior to the Olympic Games hosted in 2010, the last successful Downhill Men’s event was held in 1995.

From 1996 to 1998, the FIS moved the North American stops to earlier in the race season, leading to three consecutive cancellations of the Whistler stop on the World Cup circuit due to snow and weather conditions.

Will Whistler host another World Cup Downhill race?  Or will it be an event that only appears in Whistler’s past?

This Week in Photos: March 29

1980

The view of Creekside for those skiing down Whistler Mountain.

Not quite a parking lot – the view of Whistler Peak for those enjoying the sun at the Roundhouse this spring.

Resort Centre excavation lies gaping in front of packages 3, 4 and 5. This massive crater will be back filled to provide a solid foundation.

The bumps of the Whistler Pro-Am race held March 26.

1981

The Resort Centre gears up for the summer – complete with H. Haebler’s sign on it.

The 90 members of the Squamish Youth Chorale as they performed ‘The Witness’ at the Myrtle Philip School.

A competitor exhibits fine style doing a spread-eagle during the freestyle aerials.

The first pour of the Mountain Inn slabs that was done on March 30.

Stevenson’s Mountain Inn crew takes a break – (from left to right rear) Al Frumento (foreman), Dave Nickerson, Angelo Formolo (foreman), Sisto Marini, Don Shaw, Angelo Seopazzo and Gerhard Klein (superintendent). Seated are Marcel Richoz and Jim Crichton.

Tongue in cheek signs at Garibaldi – Alpine Lodge signs Northbound (l) and Southbound (r).

1982

Ukranian Easter egg dyeing (Psanky) underway at noon hour at the Myrtle Philip School under the direction of Mrs. Epplett.

Bookworms Unite! Take a peek at Ted Nebbeling and Jan Holberg’s new bookstore in Forget-Me-Nots. With a great selection of both classics, best-sellers and magazines, there’s definitely something that will catch your eye.

Tethered to his instructor, this skier practices a hard left turn.

1983

Todd Brooker and Dave Murray take a shot at the Yukon Jack Challenge course.

The waiters’ race (an obstacle course with trays).

Furred and feathered mascots enjoy a little get together.

Up and coming Crazy Canuck Todd Brooker talks skiing with local aficionado Dave Roberts while John (J.C.) Colpitts sizes up the champ’s feet for Super Feet foot beds at The Downhill Shop on Thursday, March 24 during Brooker’s ski vacation here.

Anthony Brummet, BC’s Minister of Lands, Parks & Housing announced March 25 that $9 million will be made available to complete Whistler Village Facilities.

Ross Dinwoodie, a lineman with the Squamish office of BC Hydro shows Myrtle Philip School children how to avoid some shocking experiences during a demonstration last Wednesday.

Const. Rene Defosse, the newest addition to Whistler’s RCMP detachment gets ready for his line of duty in this resort town. Const. Defuse replaces Const. Gadabout who was transferred to Ottawa.

1984

Spring brings the rehabilitation of the Whistler Golf Course to prepare for the seasons ahead.

Bev Wylie shows off the new equipment in the medical clinic.

Keeping the roads clearly marked requires signs and stencils.